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un-dis-de-anti-counter-contra- o dress () - to undress (),to appear () - to disappear ()formation () - deformation ()fascist ...

, "i, , :il + l,ir + r,im + b, m, p.

re- to construct () - to reconstruct (),to read () - to reread (),to write () - to rewrite ()

un-dis-de-anti-counter-contra- o dress () - to undress (),to appear () - to disappear ()formation () - deformation ()fascist () - anti-fascist ()attack () - counterattack ()to contradict (, )

a-ab-un-im-in-ir-il-dis-mis-non- amoral (, )absent ()kind () - unkind ()possible () - impossible ()ability () - inability ()regular () - irregular ()legal () - illegal ()honest () - dishonest (),to understand () - to misunderstand ( )non-interference ()

over-super-ultra-extra- to pay () - to overpay ()human () - superhuman ()short () - ultra-short ()ordinary () - extraordinary ()

co-inter- existence () - co-existence ()national () - international ()

pre-fore- historic () - prehistoric ()to foresee ()

post- revolutionary () - post-revolutionary ()

under- production () - underproduction ()

sub- division () - subdivision ()

ex- champion () - ex-champion ( )

auto- autobiography ()

semi- semicircle ()

trans- transatlantic ()

up- upstairs ( ), to uproot ( )

bi- bilingual ()

bibli(o)- bibliography ()

bio- biography ()

by- by-street (, )

multi-poly- multicolored ()polyglot ()

en- danger () - to endanger ( ),force () - to enforce ()

::

-ist-(i)anCommunist (); artist ()historian (); Russian ()

-ismheroism ()

-er-or-ee-eerto teach () - teacher (),to direct () - director ()employee (), refugee (, )auctioneer ()

-ment-adeachievement ()lemonade ()

-hood-ship-(a)cybrotherhood ()dictatorship ()accuracy ()

-age-ing-ence-ance-(t)ion-ition-ation-sion-al shortage (), voyage ()hunting ()silence (), difference ()importance ()collection (, )competition (),hesitation (, )decision (),removal (), arrival ()

-dom-ness-tyfreedom ()kindness (), weakness ()activity (), safety ()

-erybakery (), slavery ()

-icsphysics (), politics ()

:

-ese-ishChinese (, );reddish (), childish ()

-ive-ent-antto talk () talkative ()to differ () - different (),to observe () - observant ()

-ic-al-ful-ous-y base () - basic ()centre () - central ()beauty () - beautiful ()fame () - famous ()cloud () - cloudy ()

-ary-oryelement () - elementary ()illusion () - illusory (, )

-able-ibleto change () - changeable ()sense () - sensible ()

-lessuseless (), windless ()

:

-ate-en-(i)fy-ize/iseactive () - to activate ()short () - to shorten ()simple () - to simplify ()character () - to characterize ()

:

-lybad () - badly ()

-wards-wardafter () - afterwards (),home (, ) - homeward ( , )

, :

accuse someone of doing something - -act from (some reason) (- )agree to something- -apologize for something- -apologize to someone -apply for (a job) ()arrive at something - (, )arrive home arrive in something - ( )ask someone of something - -be afraid of (doing) something- -be angry about something- - be angry with somebody - -be aware of something - be concerned about something -be dependent on something- -be famous for something -be good at something- -be impressed by/with- -be pleased with someone / something- - / -be similar to something -be sorry about something- -be sorry for doing something- - be upset about something- -belong to someone -blame someone for something - -borrow something from someone - -care about something - care for someone , -take care of , . .take care of yourself( )charge someone with something - -collide with something -complain to somebody about something- - -concentrate on something -conform to something- -congratulate someone on something - -consist of something- -crash/drive/run into something , -depend on something -die from/ of something -divide/cut/split something into (parts) / - ()do something about something - - (- )do something of (necessity) - ( )dream of/about something - - get on / get off (the bus) / ( )happen from something - -happen to someone -hear about something hear from somebody- - ( )hear of something -insist on something- -joke on someone -laugh/smile at something / -leave a place for another place live on something - look after someone -look at something -look for something -meet with someone -pass by something -point/aim at something -prefer something to something - -protect someone/something from something - -provide someone with something - -refer to something- -regard something as something - -rely on someone -remind of something - ( )remind someone about something - search for something -shout at someone -shout to someone -speak/talk to someone -spend money on something -suffer from something -think about something - ()think of something - throw something at something - -wait for someone -warn someone against something - -warn someone not to do something - -

.

:

1) ( , foot feet, . . , y i, f v, -es s ).2) ( world worlds). , .

(, I), (me), (my mine). (this, that) . . (some, any, no, every ) , , .

. .

- . than as as/ so as, , the, .

. (, ) ( ).

1) , . , .

2) , , .

, ( ) , . (, ) -. , .

( I wish) , .

1. . .

The study calculated that replacing weekly fruit juice... with whole fruits could bring health benefits. (consume)

For my birthday Mother baked a cake with yellow.... (ice)

Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are called... because they provide the fuel your body needs. (nutrition)

Many women have to juggle... and a full-time job. (mother)

... are unavoidable when three... live under one roof. (argue, generate)

Her deep... of her sister was evident. (hate)

Older people who live alone often need help with gardening and house... (maintain)

Positive attitude helps employees to get along with... and managers. (worker)

Chinas air... has cut life... by an average of 5.5 years in the north of the country and caused higher rates of lung cancer. (pollute, expect)

It is much safer to use stainless steel or glass... instead of plastic ones. (contain)

2. . .

My favorite... book is Appetite by Nigel Slater. (cooker)

Eating can also make you..., and so can waking up in the morning. (thirst)

You shouldnt rest on your laurels but try to improve your... performance. (academy)

Highly... gas is naturally found in coal mines. (explode)

An... species is a species of organisms facing a very high risk of extinction. (danger)

The most... earthquake struck in Shanxi, China 1556. (disaster)

... exploitation of nature by man has resulted in the effects we have to deal with now. (thought)

Laos is a landlocked... country, widely covered by tropical forest. (mountain)

I decided to take a walk. It would be too... to wait in the queue. (tire)

3. .

.

The service was slow and the waiters familiarity was , so we left without paying. (accept)

Some children are a challenge, especially when they... in public places. (behaviour)

To my..., the restaurant was overbooked and we had to spend the evening at home. (appoint)

Michael was... about what dessert to order. (decide)

Parents... of their childrens behaviour and life choices can ruin their lives. (approve)

There is a huge difference between... children and those merely... to listen to their parents advice. (obey, will)

Young children mustnt be left... either at home or at public places. (attention)

She was frequently left alone by her... husband. (faith)

If you describe someone as..., you are criticising them because they are unable to do their job or a task properly or are... to act in this capacity. (competence, qualifications)

Banks are still seen as... and many people keep their savings at home. (security)

4. , .

Guar gum also is used in the food industry to... products like ice cream. (thick)

Old Manchester houses are made of red brick... by soot. (black)

David spotted the pink silk lampshade in a shop and thought it would... up the room. (bright)

Do we ever stop to think about the importance of the air we... ? (breath)

Id like to... this dress for one in a larger size. (change)

They... 100 dollars from a bank account an hour ago. (draw)

5. . .

Sometimes one's... are the only people one can... in. (parental, confidence)

Many people... that getting a spouse can put them out of their..., which later... wrong, because sometimes marriage makes life more difficult. (belief, miserable, proof)

An... Roman... has been discovered in northwest England, (extend, settle)

The dining-room is elegantly... and... carpeted, (furniture, luxury)

Everyone is... of her having the chance to... abroad, (envy, student)

When employers look at... candidates, beyond skills, experience, and training, they look for those who demonstrate... (prospect, enthuse)

In the city the... and... were insufferable, (hot, humid)

Our planets... regions, located just north and south of the equator, are known for their... and... (tropic, warm, humid)

Next to Shakespeare, no... gets more love on Broadway than Tennessee Williams, (play)

During Elizabeths reign England significantly... its trade... and in 1580 Sir Francis Drake became the first Englishman to successfully... the earth, (expansion, sea, circumnavigation)

.

Exercise 1.1 consumption, 2 icing, 3 nutrients, 4 motherhood/maternity, 5 arguments, generations, 6 hatred, 7 maintenance, 8 co-workers, 9 pollution, expectancy

Exercise 2.1 cookery, 2 thirsty, 3 academic, 4 explosive, 5 endangered, 6 disastrous, 7 thoughtless, 8 mountainous, 9 tiresome

Exercise 3.1 unacceptable, 2 misbehave, 3 disappointment, 4 indecisive, 5 disapproval, 6 disobedient, unwilling, 7 unattended, 8 unfaithful, 9 incompetent, unqualified, 10 insecure

Exercise 4.1 thicken, 2 blackened, 3 brighten, 4 breathe, 5 exchange, 6 withdrew

Exercise 5.1 parents, confide, 2 believe, misery, proves, 3 extensive, settlement, 4 furnished, luxuriously 5 envious, study, 6 prospective, enthusiasm, 7 heat, humidity, 8 tropic (al), warmth, humidity, 9 playwright, 10 expanded, oversea (s), circumnavigate

.

Test 1.This is the most.

..... concert Ive ever been to. (Expense)

Her husbands not a very...person. (Patience)

Susan is very...and wants to do well. (Ambition)

Show some. Dont you like the idea? (Enthuse)

Her problem is that she has not enoughin herself. (Confide)

Dan is really very, even rude sometimes. (Polite)

I havent been to the cinema. (Recent)

Mary and they never s aw her again. (Appear)

Test 2.Most people have no real in ghosts.

(Believe)

Mark Twain wrote many stories. (Humour)

The childrens at the concert was excellent. (Behave)

Rita asked for a and cashier gave her one. (Receive)

Do you think you have the to pass the exam? (Able)

You need a lot of to write a good story. (Imagine)

I read an interesting in the newspaper. (Advertise)

Their friendship began in their . (Child)

Test 3.Im telling you the ! I swear! (True)

Your composition isnt good enough. Youll have to it. (Write)

Did you know Ann used to work as a when she was younger? (Wait)

They need your before they can do it. (Sign)

It all happened quite. I didnt have time to think. (Sudden)

Im sure his new film is going to be a huge.(Succeed)

Did Paul give an for his actions? (Explain)

The of the village are all very kind. (Inhabit)

Test 4.The leaflet gives a brief of each place.

(Describe)

Can you give us a quick of how it works? (Explain)

Olga broke the vase during an with her husband. (Argue)

Gold is a very metal. (Value)

Peter began to feel depressed and . (Help)

His book is the result of years of research. (Care)

This snake is not at all. (Danger)

The bright flowers make the room look... (Cheer)

Test 5. 1.

Teenagers nowadays are more interested in . problems. (Globe)

2. Have you seen the new Levi on TV? (Advertise)

3. I looked everywhere but I couldnt find him. Hes (Appear)

4. Its very to drink and drive. (Danger)

5. Can you give me some more about this adventure holiday? (Inform)

6. We need to put up some for tonights party. (Decorate)

7. The weather today will be cold and. (Wind)

8. Margarita was very with the service. (Satisfy)

Test 6.

They put a lot of on him to agree to their demands. (Press)

Ive had three nights and l feel exhausted. (Sleep)

If you have problems with your , see a doctor. (Circulate)

Im feeling very today. I think Ill go for a run. (Energy)

Remember that are also human. (Examine)

His nose was quite for days after hed it pierced. ( Pain)

There are a lot of restaurants in this area. (Fashion)

Although she isnt beautiful, most men find her quite (Attract).

Test 7.

1.The food was completely ; he was a useless cook.(Taste)

2. There were over 500 to the temple every day.(Visit )

3. You cant hope to win the race without any .(Train)

4. In spite of her ,Jane continued her journey.(Hungry )

5.Hard as he tried, he was unable to find .(Solve ) 6.I speaking, I dont think Latin is a useful subject.(Person)

7.You need to organize your time more (Efficient ) Test 8.Stories are more . than lists of words.(Memory )

His exam results were very . (Please )

Passing exams will help you to get a job.(Good )

You should revise on a regular (Base )

There are books that are specially .for foreign learners.(Simple )

A degree is a very useful.to have.(Qualify )

I hope you will take into what I have just said to you.(Consider )

This new book had many beautiful in it.(ILLUSTRATE)

Test 9.

1.My aunt became .when she went to America. (Fame)

2.Paul sings .; Im surprised he isnt a professional singer. (Beauty)

3.I was .to see all my old friends again. (Delight ) 4.They bought some for their new house. (Furnish ) 5. She lives in a really mansion in the suburbs. (Luxury ) 6. Are you sitting . in that chair ? (Comfort ) 7.Everyone was nervous about the s visit. (Inspector)

8.Our teacher has a really strong .. (Person)

9.His father has the best of ancient coins. (Collect)

Test 10. 1.

The teacher wanted to know what my greatest .(Ambitious)

2.Iever go to the theatre. I dont like it.(Hard )

3.Marina has a very manner, which I appreciate.(Relax)

4.Her son took part in the world last year.(Champion)

5.I was .when victor said I was beautiful.(Flatter)

6. Julia got a for best leading actress.(Nominate )

7.Shes a very thinker.(Origin)

8.Her friend is very .! You can trust him.(Rely)

.

Test 1.

1. Expensive

2. Patient

3.Ambitious 4.Enthusiasm 5. Confidence

6.Impolite 7.Recently 8.DisappearedTest 2.Belief

Humorous

Behaviour Receipt

Ability

Success

Advertisement

Childhood

Test 3. 1.

Truth

2. Rewrite

3. Waitress

4. Signature

5. Suddenly

6. Success

7.Explanation 8. Inhabitants

Test 4.Description

Explanation

Argument

Valuable

Helpless

Careful

Dangerous

Cheerful

Test 5. 1.

Global

2. Advertisement

3. Disappeared

4. Dangerous

5. Information

6. Decorations

7. Windy

8. Satisfied

Test 6. 1.

Pressure

2. Sleepless

3. Circulation

4. Energetic

5. Examiners

6.PainfulTest 7. 1.Tasteless 2. Visitors

3.Training 4. Hunger

5. Solution

6. Personally

7. Efficiently

Test 8. 1.

Memorable

2. Pleasant

3. Better

4. Basis

5. Simplified

6. Qualification

7. Consideration

8. ILLustrationsTest 9.

Famous

Beautifully

Delighted

Furniture

Luxurious

Comfortably

Inspector

Personality

Collection

Test 10.Ambition

Hardly

Relaxed

Championship

Flattered

Nomination

Original

Reliable

B13 Gina was going to play the part of a very old woman in the school play. She was looking forward to the firstof the show. PERFORM

B14 A few minutes before going on stage, she had an accident. She didn't notice a box on the floor, fell over it, and hurt her knee very. BAD

B15 She could barely walk and she didn't know what to do. She felt. USE

B16 Then she remembered the expression "the show must go on." Although Gina's pain was, she decided to carry on with the play. TERROR

B17 Every second on stage was really, but somehow she managed it. PAIN

B18 Everyone thought her acting was veryand that she really looked like an old lady! IMPRESS

B13 Have you heard of the English city of York? It's one of the mostcities in the UK. FAME

B14 The Romans started the city in 71 AD. It quickly grew to becometo the Roman Empire as a military base. CENTRE

B15 In 211, Constantine I was crowned Emperor in York. This wasunusual and special, as Emperors were almost always crowned in Rome. REAL

B16 The historicalof York is also symbolised by the Minister, one of the largest churches in the world. IMPORTANT

B17 The city burnt down in afire in 1137, but managed to recover to become a centre of trade and commerce by the 1500s. DISASTER

B18 Fire struck again in 1984 and the Minister was badly damaged, but, like the city itself, the Minister recovered its former glory to stand tall once again. FORTUNE

B13 Ask an American man to choose between losing hishouse and losing his car, COMFORT

B14 and he mightchoose to keep his car. EASY

B15 A car, after all, gives you, and this is what Americans want most of all. FREE

B16 The car is such an important part of Americanthat many just cant live without it. LIVE

B17 A woman living in a suburb, for example, has a twenty-minute drive to take her children to school. She then turns her car around and drives for half an hour in anotherto get to her job in an office. DIRECT

B18 To do her, she has another long drive to a super-market, so she plans and buys food for two weeks in one trip. SHOP

B13 Did you know that the man who invented James Bond was a secret agent himself? Before he started writing the James Bond stories, Jan Fleming worked for British Naval Intelligence.

In some ways, Jan Fleming was just like James Bond. When he was young, women found him very. ATTRACT

B14 Jan Fleming was also educated at Eton and wasin sports. INTEREST

B15 And like hischaracter, Jan Fleming liked adventure, gambling, fast cars, fine wines and good food. FICTION

B16 In 1939, Jan Fleming met someone in the British Naval Intelligence who was looking for bright young men. Though he was young Jan Fleming was given a lot of. RESPONSIBLE

B17 He plotted intelligenceand carried out dangerous missions. Very soon, he became the right-hand man to one of Britain's top spymasters, Admiral John Godfrey. OPERATE

B18 During his quitecareer, Fleming met many important people and he used some of them as models for the characters in his books. SUCCESS

B13 I grew up in the UK in the 1980s. During my, there wasn't always a lot to do in the summer holidays. CHILD

B14 On the rare occasions when it was a warmday, we'd go for a picnic on Blackpool beach. SUN

B15 As far as my family were concerned, there was nothing morethan eating sandwiches on the beach. ENJOY

B16 We hardly ever went swimming, though, as the water was oftencold. So we would just play on the wet sand. EXTREME

B17 But even if we werewith the weather and it started raining, we could always go for some fish and chips. LUCKY

B18 Nothing gave us more pleasure after aday at the seaside. TIRE

B13 When Nick returned from his holiday, he met his friend Jill for a drink. She asked him if he had had atime. RELAX

B14 Nick said he'd really enjoyed swimming and visiting all the, but that it hadn't all been perfect. ATTRACT

B15 Because of this, Jill asked him what had made himduring the trip. HAPPY

B16 Nick replied that he hadn't really liked the hot weather. "You can'tenjoy yourself when you're sweating all the time," he said. EASY

B17 Jill reminded him that now he was back in London, where it was grey and. CLOUD

B18 "I know," said Nick, "butI still have some sunburn from Thailand to keep me warm!" LUCKY

B13 Baseball is one of many bat-and-ball games. It has enjoyed greatin the USA for more than 150 years. POPULAR

B14 Baseball is almost the same as the British game rounders, although the two games have slightlyrules. DIFFER

B15 No-one knows for sure where baseball or rounders wereplayed. ORIGINAL

B16 Cricket also shares severalwith both baseball and rounders. SIMILAR

B17 Oneof cricket, at least for those learning the game, is that it has some strange rules and a complicated scoring system. ADVANTAGE

B18 Which is yourgame of the three? FAVOUR

B13 Ravi Shankar was born in 1920 and lived until 2010. He was a famousfrom India. MUSIC

B14 He played an instrument known as the sitar, which looks a little like a guitar but only has three strings. Its namecomes from a word meaning "three strings". ACTUAL

B15 Shankar playedIndian songs that dated back centuries but were mostly unknown outside his own country. CLASSIC

B16 In the 1950s, Shankar began touring the USA, playing Indian music around the country. He soon became popular with American music. LOVE

B17 Before long, Shankar was giving concerts all over the world. He had become a realmusic star. NATIONAL

B18 Shankar won many awards in hiscareer. He won Grammy awards and received the highest civilian honours in India and France. CREDIBLE

B13 I went shopping yesterday. When I went into my local bookshop, I saw something. AMAZE

B14 Jamie Oliver, the famous TV chef, was signing copies of his latest cookbook. You can't imagine myat meeting him in person. EXCITE

B15 I've seen a few otherover the years, but Jamie Oliver is one of my favourites. CELEBRATE

B16 He has done various TV cookery shows, teaching viewers how to cook food which is quite simple, but stilland delicious. HEALTH

B17 Jaime Oliver always appears to be such a friendly person. Some TV chefs, on the other hand, seem to try to be asas possible. PLEASANT

B18 I think they want viewers tothem, perhaps because hating them actually makes people keep watching their TV shows. LIKE

B13 In spite of thereputation of the British, over 16 million Valentine cards are sent each year on February 14th. 39% of Valentine cards are sent by women and 61% by men. ROMANTIC

B14 , Valentine cards were only sent by men to women. They were all handmade and elaborately decorated. ORIGINAL

B15 The oldestValentine card can be found in the British Museum. It was sent in the year 1415. EXIST

B16 St Valentine's Day is nowin many countries all over the world, CELEBRATION

B17 Russia and China. INCLUDE

B18 But inChina your flowers can be confiscated if the police see you in the street with a bouquet. ATHEISM

B13 The gorilla is a shy creature and seldom violent.

In fact, it is quite different from theanimal we sometimes see in films and comic books. It only stands on two legs and beats its chest if it wants to frighten an enemy away. DANGER

B14 Gorillas are the largest and the mostof all the apes. Adult males reach an average height of 150-170 cm and weigh from 135 to 230 kg. Females are smaller. POWER

B15 Both males and females arestrong and can tear down branches and pull up small trees. EXTREME

B16 They spend their daysfor food or resting in the warm sun. LOOK

B17 But there are few of these animals left in the wild. This is because people are cutting down the forests in which gorillas. LIFE

B18 If we want to save the gorilla, we must takenow. ACT

B13 According to 'the older generation' teenagers are lazy, they wearclothes and are rude to their elders. RIDICULE

B14 What's more, they spend all their time listening to awful music and watchingfilms. And all they ever think about is parties, drugs and sex. SUITABLE

B15 , it seems to me to be quite the opposite. Teenagers spend a lot of time thinking about their work (studies), their families and friends and their hobbies. ACTUAL

B16 Sure, they think about clothes, money, their bodies andin a certain situation. BEHAVE

B17 But isn't it the same for most people? So what about the myth that all teenagers are rude, selfish, lazy and? As far as I'm concerned, it's nonsense. GREED

B18 The vast majority of young people I meet are polite,, open, interested and hard-working. FRIEND

B13 Physical fitness is a general state of good health, usually as a result of exercise and nutrition. Physical fitness can also be described as a condition that allows us to look, feel and do our best. Being fit helps us have more energy for work or school, and enough energy to enjoy our leisure time. ACTIVE

B14 Fitness is an individual quality. It is influenced by age, sex, heredity,habits, exercise and eating practices. PERSON

B15 You can't doabout the first three factors. However, it is within your power to change and improve the others where needed. ANY

B16 The level of physical fitness can be influenced by regular,exercise. How often, how long and how hard you exercise, and what kinds of exercises you do should be determined by what you are trying to get. SYSTEM

B17 For example, an athletefor high-level competition TRAIN

B18 would follow aprogram than a person whose goals are good health and active life. DIFFER

B13 I think my mission is to create a good home. Home isn't just walls or people or memories connected with. CHILD

B14 Home is somethingdifferent. ABSOLUTE

B15 It's the atmosphere of love,HAPPY

B16 andthat gives me lots of life energy. Home is my mother whom I love very much. UNDERSTAND

B17 Sometimes she worries about me when I come home late or dothings. Sorry, mum! EXPECTED

B18 Home is my brother whom I love too, though sometimes he annoys me very much. Home is the place where I can hide away from all mywhere I can relax after a hard school day and be myself. If I leave my home, a piece of it will be always in my heart. DIFFICULT

B13 In 2002, a new movie was released. The plot is very simple. The hero, Peter Parker, is a student and also works as a. PHOTO

B14 He lives in New York with his aunt and uncle. He is a shy young man, in love with a girl next door, but he is very awkward, and the girl doesn't notice him much. In short there is nothingabout him. HERO

B15 But one day he is bitten by the mutant spider and gets its qualities. Now he has superhumanand reflexes, STRONG

B16 he walks up walls and sticksto any surface, he can shoot webbing from his wrists. PRACTICAL

B17 Peter decides to use his extraordinary powers to fightliving in his city. CRIME

B18 In hisred suit, Spiderman patrols the streets to save the good people of New York from all kinds of danger. WONDER

B13 Scientists say that in the future people will live longer. With healthier lifestyles and bettercare the average person can live to 100. MEDICINE

B14 But that's tomorrow. And today, we continue to stuff ourselves with fast food. What is tasty is not always healthy. Doctors say that chips and pizzas are fattening, cola spoils our teeth and coffeeour lives. SHORT

B15 If we eat too much, it will lead to heart disease, diabetes and other serious. But the world today is getting fatter and fatter. ILL

B16 Lack of exercise is anotherproblem. We spend hours in front of our computers and TV-sets. Few of us do morning exercises. We walk less, because we prefer to use cars or public transport. Research shows, however, that young people who don't take enough exercise often suffer from heart attacks. IMPORTANCE

B17 It's commonthat cigarettes and alcohol can make our lives shorter dramatically. KNOW

B18 Yet many young people drink beer and few of them give up. We all know that the healthier we are, the better we feel. The better we feel, the longer we live. So why not take care of ourselves? SMOKE

B13 The use of animals forpurposes is a difficult ethical problem. Many people owe their lives to modern drugs or surgical techniques that first were tested on animals. SCIENCE

B14 Some of thesewould not have been possible without animal experiments. DEVELOP

B15 People who campaign for animal rights are usually young and, and have not yet needed the benefits of medical progress. HEALTH

B16 Perhaps it is ethicallyto sacrifice animals for the sake of medical research, as long as the animals do not suffer. ACCEPT

B17 But thatpoint of view rises another difficult question: THEORY

B18 what can be considered as? SUFFER

B13 In an epoch of technical progress, reading books is losing its value. Little by little radio, television and internet are beginning to force books from ourlife. If in the past a lot of the greatest poets and writers, such as Pushkin, Yesenin, Bulgakov created their works, in our days such masters of words are absent. DAY

B14 We begin to consider some detective and love stories of poor quality as 'literary works'. It's a bigfor all mankind. ADVANTAGE

B15 A book is afriend for a man. Reading is the thing which helps us to develop our soul, teaches us to get to know our life. FAITH

B16 The heroes of books, by their examples, help us to avoid mistakes. A good book is a wise company, which can give usadvice. USE

B17 Readingdevelops our memory; our speech becomes richer, more literate and. EXPRESS

B18 Reading books in a foreign languages, we can get to know the culture and traditions of native, improve our language and broaden our outlook. SPEAK

B13 Do you know thatclothes can be bad for you! FASHION

B14 This may surprise you, but some clothes can causeproblems. VARIETY

B15 Researchers have discovered that following the latest fashion trends can be. For example, if you tie a scarf or tie too tightly it increases your blood pressure. Tight jeans and trousers, short skirts may all cause illnesses. HEALTHY

B16 How can we explain this? Very tight clothes can prevent people moving, and this is not good for you. NATURAL

B17 If you wear trousers or skirts that are too tight around the waist, then your stomach does not have room to expand after you have eaten, and this can cause stomachache.shoes with high heels can lead to foot and back problems. WEAR

B18 Even practical shoes can cause backache if they don't fit you. PROPER

B13 Centuries ago, people didn't have much free time, because everybody wasworking too hard. SIMPLE

B14 In Britain in the nineteenth century, people invented football, rugby and cricket. It was evento watch a sportPOSSIBILITY

B15 and give thethat you were actually doing something. IMPRESS

B16 Later leisure activities became less and less demanding, and most people got a variety of more or lessinterests and hobbies. ENERGY

B17 But now there is a new type of person who thinks that lying on the sofa watching television is the most exciting thing. This is the twentieth-century couch potato. For them, everyis too much trouble, ACTIVE

B18 andis an art form! LAZY

B13 I like travelling because it canoutlook and helps me to understand other cultures. BROAD

B14 I think that I'm already an experienced. TRAVEL

B15 First of all everything should beplanned. I'm not an adult yet so I travel with my parents. This year we decided to go to Britain. CAREFUL

B16 In Britain we stayed in a small hotel near London. It offered us a wide range ofgames, such as tennis and football, DIFFER

B17 and a lot of: boating, canoeing and soon. ACTIVE

B18 was offered for those who wanted to get to remote places choosing scenic routes. CYCLE

B13 Scotlandis a popular tourist destination. To me, the mainof Scotland is its castles. ATTRACT

B14 The landscape in Scotland is more dramatic than in England and the castles look verythere. IMPRESS

B15 One doesn't need to be a poet or anto see their beauty. ART

B16 VisitingEdinburgh Castlewas anexperience. Its location is remarkable - it was built on top of a volcanic rock. Luckily, the volcano has never disturbed the Castle. FORGETABLE

B17 But it has beendamaged by people. Like most ancient castles, Edinburgh Castle was built as a fortress. It has been involved in many military conflicts, ruined and restored several times. The oldest part of the Castle dates from 12thcentury, the other parts were constructed and reconstructed later. SERIOUS

B18 Now the Castle houses several museums, including theWarMuseum. NATION

B13 I like travelling because it canoutlook and helps me to understand other cultures. BROAD

B14 I think that I'm already an experienced. TRAVEL

B15 First of all everything should beplanned. I'm not an adult yet so I travel with my parents. This year we decided to go to Britain. CAREFUL

B16 In Britain we stayed in a small hotel near London. It offered us a wide range ofgames, such as tennis and football, DIFFER

B17 and a lot of: boating, canoeing and soon. ACTIVE

B18 was offered for those who wanted to get to remote places choosing scenic routes. CYCLE

B13 The Internet is a great invention that has changed the way we communicate forever. Nowadays, if you want to exchangewith someone, it's not important how far away the person is. INFORM

B14 Whatmatters is whether he has access to the Internet or not. REAL

B15 I know that when people started to experiment with the Internet, it required lots of. EQUIP

B16 Computers and other devices were very large in size and it wasto carry them around they were always kept in a laboratory. POSSIBLE

B17 Nowdevices have got smaller - you can carry them in a handbag or in your pocket. ELECTRON

B18 Im not a, or ever an engineer, but I'm sure there will be lots of new Internet-related interventions in the near future. SCIENCE

B13 I don't like opera very much. I find it. Like many people on my age I prefer another type of music - music you can dance to. BORE

B14 My grandparents, however,with me. They think that every human being should listen to classical music, at least from time to time. AGREE

B15 When I was younger, they even dreamt that I would become aor a composer. MUSIC

B16 for me, now they understand there is no chance of that. LUCKY

B17 Once I took part in a musicaland came last! Anyway, when they go on their special outings to the Opera House, they insist that I should go with them. I usually obey. COMPETE

B18 But not because I like opera. It's because I love architecture! And all the Opera Houses weve visited lookroom both inside and outside. FANTASY

B13 There are lots of stories about animals who save peoples lives. Dogs, cats, horses and even rabbits sometimes help people in verysituations. DANGER

B14 Mary Pitt, for example, theof a cat, Toffy, survived the fire due to help pet. OWN

B15 Nobody knows what caused the fire in the. Mary was fast asleep when the smoke filled in her room. She ignored the sound of the smoke alarm and kept on sleeping. Amazingly, instead of escaping the house, the cat, Toffy, stayed in the room trying to wake up Mary. BUILD

B16 The cat bit her hand until she woke up. When the woman realised what was going on, shecalled the emergency services. The firemen stopped the fire. IMMEDIATE

B17 Now Toffy enjoys the title of the mostcat in Marys town. FAME

B18 Some people say that cats are less devoted to people than dogs. For obvious reasons, Mary considers this statement. FAIR

B13 Nowadays lots of tourists prefer quiet places to big cities. That is why smalltowns have become very popular tourist destinations. TRADITION

B14 I think this growingis very useful for local economies. POPULAR

B15 The tourist industry creates new jobs. A good share of these jobs do not necessarily requireand highly qualified workers. SKILL

B16 It means students and people without collegehave a fair chance to earn a living. EDUCATE

B17 In tourist regions people more often set up their own small businesses and it helps reducetoo. EMPLOYMENT

B18 A friend of mine, who lives in a small town, used to have constant problems with work. When his home town became popular with tourists, he became a taxi driver and now he's running a small business very. SUCCESSFUL

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